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acacia mangium disease

Insect pests and diseases routinely affect the health of trees, and major outbreaks can give catastrophic environmental and economic impacts. The disease appears to be spreading in this plantation, affecting both seedlings in the nursery and mature trees in the field. In Malaysia, the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia and private forest plantation companies consider A. mangium a useful early pioneer species on open and degraded areas where most other plants or trees are unable to grow (E. Gan, Sabah Forest Industries, personal communication; B. Chan, Sarawak Timber Association, personal communication). Bridge & M. Holderness, eds. Lee, S.S., Teng, S.Y., Lim, M.T. It grows rapidly in sites with low levels of soil nutrients, even on acidic soils and degraded sites (National Research Council 1983). E-mail: karen.barry@utas.edu.au Spores of the fungus are wind dispersed and it would appear that the disease is spreading to Malaysia from neighbouring Kalimantan. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Its aim is to synthesise information about this fungal pathogen that can be used to 1997. Flood, P.D. Gall rust disease of Albizia falcataria (L.) Beck. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. A new screening method for Its aim is to synthesise information about this fungal pathogen that can be used to inform development of suitable disease-control strategies in forest plantations. Common Disease On Acacia Biology Essay 1.0 INTRODUCTION In the long history of human development, the forest was cut down and serves as an agricultural site for human while its resources is chopped and used as building material. Internet document: www.forestry.sarawak.gov.my/forweb/sfm/fdw.fplntn.htm. Lee, S.S. & Noraini Sikin, Y. Sawn timber from Acacia mangium affected by heartrot. In J. Leaves of affected trees turn pale green and are much reduced in size and number. Heart rot incidence can be very high, ranging from about 50 to 98 percent (Ivory, 1988; Mahmud, Lee and Ahmad, 1993; Zakaria et al., 1994). Family Fabaceae (Mimosoideae). Heavy infestation results in deformation of the foliage, defoliation, stunted form and reduced growth. Ito, S. 1999. Systemic fungicide application may be feasible in the nursery but is impractical and uneconomical in large-scale plantations. Jakarta, Indonesia, CIFOR. Acacia requires little or no water. It has become a major industrial plantation species in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Plantations of a number of other exotic species such as Acacia mangium, Araucaria spp., Eucalyptus spp., Gmelina arborea, Maesopsis eminii and Falcataria moluccana (=Paraserianthes falcataria) were established in the 1980s with the aim of producing general utility timber. Although the initial panic was a reaction to heart rot, A. mangium is susceptible to other more serious diseases which impair growth or cause tree mortality. & Sim, H.C. 1994. Root rot has become the most economically damaging disease of this species with high tree mortality rates observed during second and third rotations. Acacia mangium is the main plantation species in Vietnam, accounting for more than 54% of the plantation forest estate. The incidence of heart rot in Acacia mangium plantations in Peninsular Malaysia. However, A. mangium continues to be planted in Sabah and Sarawak for planned pulp and paper production, which is not influenced significantly by heart rot. Musi Hutan Persada, Palembang, Indonesia, PT. A. mangium, planted on a 15-year rotation for production of general-utility timber, came to constitute the largest area of forest plantations in the country. The Sabah Forest Industries (SFI) integrated pulp and paper mill began commercial production in 1988 and mainly relied on hardwood timber from the natural forest for its raw materials, but SFI also planted A. mangium and Eucalyptus spp. When the moratorium was lifted in 1994 the government had stopped establishing new forest plantations and was encouraging the private sector to take up the enterprise. Damage/symptoms: First and second instar larvae feed on soft, immature foliage, making small holes in the leaves. Disease threatens exotic plantation species in Sabah, Malaysia. The rot is confined to small pockets in the heartwood but occasionally is found throughout the length of bole, especially in older trees. Of the diseases identified in A. mangium plantations, * Author for correspondence. Certified Source Timber Programme. It was recently observed on young A. mangium plants in Sabah. Arara Abadi – Sinar Mas Forestry, Pekanbaru, Indonesia. A survey of heart rot in some plantations of Acacia mangium Willd. Products and market potential for Acacia and other plantation species. 1993. . In Integrated report on the Multi-Storied Forest Management Project in Malaysia (1991-1999). Forest pathology consultancy final report. plantations in Indonesia Annex 8: Incidence and severity of root disease at Acacia mangium plantations in the Multi-Storied Forest Management Project. Of the less than 250 000 ha currently under forest plantations in Malaysia (not counting some 1.5 million hectares planted to rubber, Hevea spp. Inclusion of resistant strains in Acacia improvement programmes would appear to be the most feasible approach to combating this disease in the long term. Of these diseases, heart rot is Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 1: 170-177. The shade trees were reported to be virtually defoliated with little evidence of crown recovery (Cristavao and Old, 2003). Lee, S.S. 2000. Tree mortality increased more or less linearly with time and led to the progressive coalescence of initially discrete disease gaps. The aim of this study was to identify these Acacia mangium is an evergreen fast-growing tropical tree, which can grow up to 30 m tall and 50 cm thick, under favorable conditions. Cristavao, C.S. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Forestry Department Malaysia, Perak State Forestry Department and Japanese International Cooperation Agency. mangium, in Ho, K.S. 1988. Between 1999 and 2002 this disease was found throughout all the coffee-growing districts of East Timor, where F. moluccana is planted as a shade tree for coffee plants. The trees are grown on a rotation of about seven years for the production of chips and pulp. The Sabah Forestry Development Authority (SAFODA) was established in 1976 for the rehabilitation of degraded areas and planted mainly A. mangium. & Lee, S.S. 1994. In K.M. Indeed, existing A. mangium plantations are being felled and replaced with other species grown in mixtures. Recently, several Ceratocystis isolates were collected from wilting A. mangium in plantations in Indonesia. Barrya,b,*, R.S.B. In late 1992, an epidemic outbreak of gall rust was reported from F. moluccana plantations in Sipitang on the west coast of Sabah. Most acacia plants (Acacia spp.) However, acacia plantations throughout Vietnam have been widely infected by Ceratocystis manginecans wilt disease, posing a serious threat to … Ivory, M.H. It was introduced to Malaysia from Java by seeds, but there are no records of when this took place. species Forest plantations. Additionally, watch for pests such as aphids, thrips, mites and scale. The rapid emergence of Acacia mangium as the key industrial plantation species in Indonesia has been followed by the equally rapid emergence of red root rot (Ganoderma philippii) as its potential nemesis. 2000. Acacia mangium is a major plantation species in the humid tropical lowlands of Asia. ABSTRACT. The past three decades have been turbulent times for forest plantations in Malaysia. – some preliminary results. Avoid pruning leafy, green areas and trim only dead growth. PESTS AND DISEASES A. mangium is affected by heart rot caused by white fungi. It is mainly planted in large monocultures for pulpwood in South‐East Asia. In 2000, Sabah had approximately 75 000 ha of A. mangium plantations (Jabatan Perhutanan Sabah, 2004) and Sarawak about 4 000 ha (Sarawak Forest Department, 2004). Later, in the continued absence of local pulp and paper mills, there was an intention to use Pinus spp. Acacia mangium is a fast-growing tree species. Root rot centres in plantations may be recognized by the appearance of slowly enlarging patches of dead and dying trees (see Old et al., 2000). Heart rot has been reported in plantations in Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia, while root rot has been reported from plantations in Sabah, Peninsular Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. Sarawak Forest Department. As a result, some sources have described A. mangium as an alien weed and invasive species, believing that it will diminish the rejuvenation potential of the original biota and invade highland secondary forests and rain forests (Certified Source Timber Programme, 2004). Species of Ceratocystis are well-known wound related pathogens of many tree species, including commercially planted Acacia spp. 2004. Acacia mangium is one of the major fast-growing hardwood species used in plantation forestry programmes throughout Asia and the Pacific. The Disadvantages of an Acacia Plant. Identification of basidiomycete fungi in Indonesian hardwood plantations by DNA barcoding. Ecological range Acacia mangium is well adapted to a wide range of soils and environmental conditions. In addition,Eucalyptus spp. Recently, several Ceratocystis isolates were collected from wilting A. mangium in plantations in Indonesia. Promoting plantation grown timber. In 2000, the species accounted for over one million ha of landuse in South-East Asia (FAO 2000). for poles and timber, but this did not come about because planting material was difficult to obtain in Malaysia. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science. Internet document: www.certifiedsourcetimber.co.uk/examples.htm. This disease is very serious in parts of neighbouring Indonesia, where mortality is high (about 20 percent) (I. Ragil, unpublished data). 2003. Canonical discriminant analysis correctly allocated >90% trees into their correct group on the first monitoring and similarly classified whether trees would be dead or missing in the following monitoring. Its ability to rapidly colonize roadsides, abandoned, degraded or open areas and marginal lands is well known, and like its close relative Acacia auriculiformis, A. mangium is now a common feature of the landscape in Malaysia and many other Southeast Asian countries. It is mainly planted in large monocultures for pulpwood in South-East Asia. Old, K.M., Lee, S.S., Shama, J.K. & Yuan, Z.Q. Acacia may need occasional pruning during the dry months. Acacia mangium is a fast‐growing tree species. Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper, Pekanbaru, Indonesia, Department of Forest Utilisation, Faculty of Forestry, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, PT. Species of Ceratocystis are well-known wound related pathogens of many tree species, including commercially planted Acacia spp. So far, these interactions have never been evaluated in the Acacia and Eucalyptus forest planted on infertile soils in the Congolese coastal plains. Paths to sustainable wood supply to the pulp and paper industry in Indonesia after diseases have forced a change of species from acacia to eucalypts. Similarly, Sabah Softwoods was established in Sabah in 1974 to plant Pinus caribaea for the pulp industry, but slow growth and seed supply problems led to replacement of the pines with A. mangium, F. moluccana, G. arborea and Eucalyptus deglupta. The disease is caused by a species of the rust Uromycladium, most likely U. tepperianum. Of the species planted, nitrogen-fixing A. mangium appeared most promising, partly because of its far superior growth, wide site suitability, multiple uses and supposed lack of serious pest problems, but especially because it was easy to plant large areas as planting material was not difficult to obtain. Heart rot can be controlled through proper pruning operations carried out according to schedule and through tree improvement aimed at producing single-stemmed trees with small-diameter branches which effectively self-prune (see Old et al., 2000). Internet document: www.sabah.gov.my/htan/new/Malay/sumber_hutan/b_history.htm. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. This is a list of Acacia species (sensu lato) that are known to contain psychoactive alkaloids, or are suspected of containing such alkaloids due to being psychoactive.The presence and constitution of alkaloids in nature can be highly variable, due to environmental and genetic factors. Large numbers of trees have been killed in ten-year-old plantations in Peninsular Malaysia (Ito, 1999; Lee, 2000). plantations, little is known of the potentially damaging diseases of A. mangium and their control. Plenary lecture presented at Biotic Interactions in the Tropics: A Special Symposium of the British Ecological Society and The Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Aberdeen, UK, 7-10 July. Paraserianthes falcataria), also called albizia, is a fast-growing native of the Moluccas, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Learn more. There is a high possibility that it may also be present in Sarawak because of its proximity to Sabah and Kalimantan. An A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrid is reputed to be less susceptible to heart rot than A. mangium, but there are few data to support that theory. & Dayan, M.P. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Malaysian Timber Industry Board and Asian Development Bank. However, the moratorium was lifted in 1994 when further studies showed that although the defect had a serious effect on wood used for construction and appearance grades, it was of little significance in the production of pulp and paper or composite wood products (Gregor, 1993). Acacia Alien and native species have been known to coexist in harmony without any deleterious effects on sites or the capacity to deliver services to society, and in some cases such new forests can reverse site degradation processes (Lugo and Brandeis, 2003). Diseases of species and provenances of acacias in West and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. are increasingly planted in Indonesia with this resource currently being utilised in pulp and rayon production. Crown condition declines and growth rate is poor. A red root rot disease associated with Ganoderma philippii is by far the greatest threat to mature A. mangium plantations. www.certifiedsourcetimber.co.uk/examples.htm, www.sabah.gov.my/htan/new/Malay/sumber_hutan/b_history.htm, www.forestry.sarawak.gov.my/forweb/sfm/fdw.fplntn.htm. 1999. Acacia mangium Willd. Most damage occurs on new foliage in the upper crown. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing. Krishnapillay, personal communication). The most common type of heart rot found in A. mangium is a white fibrous rot which may occur as small pockets or throughout the length of the heartwood. Malaysia is fortunate in that its forest plantations have thus far been spared from any serious disease outbreak or epidemics. & Brandeis, T. 2003. Wood suitable for furniture, cabinetmaking, light structural works, particleboard and veneer. Unsound knots and wane (defective edges or corners on a plank of wood) are prevalent in sawn timber from A. mangium affected by heart rot, which reduces yield, especially of small logs (Ho and Sim, 1994). A. mangium is able to revegetate marginal and degraded areas, thereby improving the site for subsequent colonization by other plant and animal species. They also hunt for food inside the forest and collect wild fruits and vegetables as their sources of foods. Structural host responses of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus pellita to artificial infection with the root rot pathogen, Ganoderma philippii. Root rot is the most important disease affectingAcacia trees,includingA. . The hybrid’s branching behaviour differs from Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis in that the tree has many small, light branches that can be easily pruned. : ecology, silviculture and productivity 3 2.4. However, A. mangium root rot could threaten the continued existence and expansion of these plantations, and the threat of phyllode rust also needs to be carefully monitored. FRIM Research Pamphlet, 114: 1-15. A manual of diseases of tropical acacias in Australia, South-East Asia and India. Introducing nitrogen-fixing trees (NFTs) such as Acacia mangium in Eucalyptus fast-growing plantations improves forest productivity [1,2,3], enhances C sequestration in both soil and biomass [4,5], and decreases N deficiency of inherently nutrient-poor soils previously beneath natural savannas in the Congolese coastal plains [5,6,7]. Sexuality and mating types of Ganoderma philippii, Ganoderma mastoporum and Ganoderma australe, three basidiomycete fungi with contrasting ecological roles in south-east Asian pulpwood plantations. However, the volume of wood affected is usually rather small; mean volume loss is only about 1 percent of merchantable volume. Prior to the moratorium on A. mangium planting imposed because of heart rot in 1992, all A. mangium plantations in Peninsular Malaysia were developed by the federal government. The long-term success of Acacia mangium, once generally considered the most promising forest plantation species in Malaysia, may be threatened by vulnerability to diseases such as heart rot, root rot and phyllode rust. Jakarta, Indonesia, CIFOR. Of the diseases identified in A. mangium plantations, * Author for correspondence. Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease has severely compromised the profitability of Acacia mangium plantations in Southeast Asia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 11: 240-254. Ganoderma basidiospore germination responses as affected by spore density, temperature and nutrient media. Acacia mangium honey. Unlike Gregor, E.W. New rapid disease detection techniques, selection of disease-resistant plant material and an effective information exchange network within the region also need to be developed to aid in this effort. Repeated monitoring at approximately 6‐month intervals of above‐ and below‐ground variables was used to explore relationships between measures of tree health and root rot. Management of basidiomycete root‐ and stem‐rot diseases in oil palm, rubber and tropical hardwood plantation crops. Occurrence and spread of the disease is thus considered to be closely associated with root disease inocula present at the site. In a long-term root disease survey in A. mangium plantations, more than 40 percent mortality of trees aged between 10 and 14 years old was reported in severely infected areas (Lee, 2000). Diseases of tropical acacias, p. 23-46. Timber with heart rot is not suitable for general purposes such as construction because of loss of structural strength and poor recovery of high-value products during processing. CIFOR Special Publication. Acacia mangium, a fast-growing tree native to parts of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia, has been cultivated outside its native environment and introduced into humid tropical lowland regions of Asia, South America and Africa over the last few decades. wilt and canker – a disease that compromises the growing of commercial Within a year, the disease had spread over 450 ha, causing wilting of gall-bearing branches, severe dieback, stunting and death of trees. If you live near an acacia mangium forest than beekeeping is guaranteed success. Ceratocystis Furthermore, A. mangium plantations have been located in natural forests in Malaysia, yet there have been no incidences where the species has been found to invade undisturbed sites. The focus of this review is on Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease in Acacia trees. 1990. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Silviconsult Ltd/Compensatory Plantation Unit and Federal Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia. The long-term success of Acacia mangium, once generally considered the most promising forest plantation species in Malaysia, may be threatened by vulnerability to diseases such as heart rot, root rot and phyllode rust. Acacia plantations established in this country amounted to approximately 1 million ha in 2006 (Arisman and Hardiyanto 2006). Acacia Because of the observed impact of heart rot on timber quality, the Ministry of Primary Industries of Malaysia imposed a temporary moratorium on further planting of A. mangium in 1992. In 2000, the species accounted for over one million ha of landuse in South-East Asia (FAO 2000) . Falcataria moluccana (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) (syn. However, as the plantations grew they turned out to be prone to a number of diseases. Eusebio, M.A., Sinohin, V.O. & Razali, A.K. 2004. The journal publishes papers that describe translational and applied research focusing on practical aspects of disease diagnosis, development, and management in agricultural and horticultural crops. Species‐specific PCR for rapid identification of Ganoderma philippii and Ganoderma mastoporum from Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus pellita plantations in Indonesia. ), approximately 60 percent has been planted with the fast-growing exotic A. mangium. Subsequent plantings in 1993 were also affected and the plantations did not recover, nor was the disease eradicated (E. Gan, personal communication). Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease has severely compromised the profitability of Acacia mangium plantations in Southeast Asia. Perladangan hutan. Acacia mangium is in subgenus Phyllodinae, a group containing in excess of 900 species (Maslin and McDonald, 1996). Screening disease resistance of Acacia auriculiformis clones against Ceratocystis manginecans by artificial and natural inoculation methods. In this experiment, 100‐tree plots were established in commercial plantings of A. mangium at five sites which represented the range of growing conditions used for plantation establishment in Indonesia. There has been some concern about the weedy nature of Acacia mangium and its potential to become an invasive species. and other legumes. Lugo, A.E. Mortality is increasing in much younger second- and third-rotation plantations, where trees as young as six months old are being killed by the disease (Old et al., 2000). On the peninsula no new significant Acacia plantations have been established apart from those previously planted by government projects. The fungus causes severe damage to foliage and young stems in nurseries and young plantations, as well as to seed pods. Root rot has become the most economically damaging disease of this species with high tree mortality rates observed during The relationship between occurrence of root rot and soils is at present unclear and warrants further study. Therefore, there is always a need for vigilance and regular disease monitoring and/or surveys so that any new diseases may be rapidly detected and suitable management or control measures implemented without delay. The origin of the disease in the F. moluccana plantations in Sabah is not known. Ganoderma philippii The effective management of all tree health problems depends on their early detection. Special Issue: Root Rot in South‐East Asian Plantations. 2004. Old, S.S. Lee & J.K. Sharma, eds. The rot is only evident when the tree is felled. . E-mail: karen.barry@utas.edu.au A rust epidemic of the coffee shade tree (Paraserianthes falcataria) in East Timor. While these A. mangium plantations were young, there were no detectable disease problems. Similarly, its main stem, though not as straight as that of Acacia mangium, is much straighter than the main stem of Acacia auriculiformis. The most publicized of these is heart rot; yet two other diseases, root rot and phyllode rust, have turned out to be far more threatening. Several species in the Botryosphaeriaceae family cause wood stain, cankers, and dieback of trunks and branches in a wide range of forest tree species. However, the private sector has shown more interest in planting high-value timber trees such as Tectona grandis (teak), Khaya ivorensis and Azadirachta excelsa (sentang) than in establishing Acacia plantations because the former are believed to be more economically promising. It has been recognized since the 1980s that A. mangium is prone to heart rot, a stem defect which is closely associated with fungal infection of branch stubs, wounds from pruning and singling (pruning of multiple stems to leave a single leader shoot) and forking injuries (Ivory, 1988; Lee et al., 1988). This guide will help readers recognize symptoms of ill health in trees and understand their general significance. The average rate of disease development was about 0.3% per month, and average time from infection to tree death was conservatively estimated at around 1 year. 1993. In 1999, this disease was reported to be widespread in a large, previously gall rust free F. moluccana plantation on the east coast of Sabah, approximately 300 km from the infected west coast plantations. in Sabah. Agents on Acacia Name: Speiredonia retorta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Common name: Comma moth Host: Acacia mangium, Albizzia spp. The viability of these plantations is increasingly threatened by diseases and in some areas by pests. The aim of this study was to characterize the botryosphaeriaceous fungi associated with decline symptoms observed in Acacia mangium … tolerance in tropical The focus of this review is on Ceratocystis wilt and canker disease in Acacia trees. Abstract. Discoloration and heart rot of Acacia mangium Willd. , J.K. & Yuan, Z.Q unlike Insect pests and diseases routinely affect the health of have. Acacia Name: Speiredonia retorta ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ) Common Name: Speiredonia (..., Perak State Forestry Department Malaysia, Perak State Forestry Department Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia number of cited... Mortality rates observed during second and third rotations cited according to CrossRef: mangium! 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Annex 8: Incidence and severity of infections mangium, Albizzia spp. known as anthracnose planted... Ha of landuse in South-East Asia ( FAO 2000 ) there has been some concern the. Are being felled and replaced with other species grown in mixtures seed pods defoliation, stunted form and reduced.... Rust associated with the objective of pulp and paper mills, there was an intention to use Pinus spp ). Improvement programmes would appear that the disease in the Congolese coastal plains, mites and scale Indonesian hardwood by! Approximately 60 percent has been known to infect 17 % of the disease is thus to..., 1999 ; Lee, S.S. & acacia mangium disease, H.H profitability of Acacia mangium plantations being... Iucr.Org is unavailable due to technical difficulties unclear and warrants further study in the.... The objective of pulp and paper production, Wan Razali, W.M., Hashim, M.N Acacia trees L. Beck. 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