City councils (dumas), city mayors, and city administrators replaced former city soviets. As Russia’s head of state, the president is empowered to appoint the chairman of the government (prime minister), key judges, and cabinet members. Facts about Russia’s Government 4: after the reform in 2004. Both the mother … Official Name: Russian Federation Form of Government: Federation Capital: Moscow Population: 144, 125, 000 Official Language: Russian Money: Ruble Area: 17, 075, 200 square kilometres Major Mountain ranges: Ural, Altay Of the three other parties that won seats in the Duma, two of them--Just Russia and the Liberal Democratic Party--are considered to have a pro-Kremlin orientation. After studying each branch, you find out the following information about the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the Russian government. The head of state is a president elected by the people. Random Russia facts. It has two chambers: the State Duma – the lower house, and the Federation Council – the upper house. Your choices will not impact your visit. Interesting Russian Culture Facts: The official language of Russia is Russian but English is commonly spoken as a second language. All legislation must first pass the State Duma before being considered by the Federation Council. A hereditary monarch, called the tsar, ruled the people without any constitutional constraints. ), Death rate: 16, 06 deaths/1,000 population (2009 est. The president’s nominee for chairman of the government is subject to approval by the State Duma; if it rejects a nominee three times or passes a vote of no confidence twice in three months, the president may dissolve the State Duma and call for new elections. ), Net migration rate: 0,28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est. In 2011 Russia became the world’s leading oil producer. was subject to a series of Soviet constitutions (1918, 1924, 1936, 1977), under which it nominally was a sovereign socialist state within (after 1936) a federal structure. However, the power of the divisions was diluted in 2000 when seven federal districts (Central, Far East, Northwest, Siberia, Southern, Urals, and Volga), each with its own presidential envoy, were established by the central government. You can of course change your mind and withdraw your consent at any time, by returning to this site after clearing the cookies on your computer or device. Click below to consent to the use of this technology on our website – and don’t worry, we respect your privacy. Several of the administrative divisions established constitutions that devolved power to local jurisdictions, and, though the 1993 constitution guaranteed local self-governance, the powers of local governments vary considerably. During the Soviet era the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (the R.S.F.S.R.) Family Life. There have been a spew of scientists, artists and writers from Russia. 2002 October - … Russia Day, a national holiday is June 12th. For example, the regional governors and their deputies were prohibited from representing their region in the Federation Council on the grounds that their sitting in the Federation Council violated the principle of the separation of powers; however, under a compromise, both the legislative and executive branch of each region sent a member to the Federation Council. A peaceful end to a long and sometimes bloody history. 8, 121099 Moscowmailing address: PSC-77, APO AE 09721; telephone:  (495) 728-5000FAX:  (495) 728-5090; consulate(s) general: Saint Petersburg, Vladivostok, Yekaterinburg. Russian and Nato foreign ministers set up Nato-Russia Council with equal role in decision-making on terrorism and other security threats. Government and society. Until the late 1980s, however, the government was dominated at all levels by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which was all-powerful and whose head was the country’s de facto leader. It boasts the second largest coal reserve. Thereafter, the pace of change accelerated. In the mid-1990s municipal government was restructured. The Crimean district, created in 2014 following Russia’s annexation of Ukrainian territory, included the federal city of Sevastopol. This guide gives key facts to expats about the Russian government and the country’s political system. You may change your settings at any time. Russia is a huge country that is double the size … Russia Day 12 June (1990) Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993 Legal system: Based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal Executive branch: 1. Russia's eastern Kamchatka Peninsula, which extends far into the Pacific Ocean, includes more than 150 volcanoes. In 2008 an amendment to the constitution, to take effect with the 2012 election, extended the presidential term from four to six years. The pro-government party, United Russia, won a constitutional majority (more than two-thirds) of the seats in the Duma. Russia's currency is the ruble, which was significantly devalued in 1998 after the Russian government defaulted on its domestic debt obligations. In addition to autocracy, Russia’s political history contains absolutism, patrimonialism, and Orthodox Christianity. Republic after republic declared its “sovereignty,” and in December, when the Soviet Union was formally dissolved, Russia was established as an independent country. Expatica helps make your expat journey the experience you've always wanted. In the first decade of the 21st century, the country began to undergo administrative change aimed at subordinating smaller okruga to neighbouring members of the federation. There is no vice pre… The legislative branch of Russian government has two branches: the 166 member Federation Council and the 450 member State Duma. ), Population growth rate: -0,467% (2009 est. The legislature is represented by the Federal Assembly of Russia. The Federation Council must approve all presidential appointments to the country’s highest judicial bodies (Supreme Court and Constitutional Court). On December 12, 1993, three-fifths of Russian voters ratified a new constitution proposed by Yeltsin, and representatives were elected to a new legislature. The Southern district includes portions of the Volga and North Caucasus economic regions; the North Caucasus district encompasses the remaining units of the latter economic region. Russia Facts | Russia Geography. The elite include … Russia’s ninth federal district was created in 2014, after it annexed the Ukrainian autonomous republic of Crimea; this territorial claim was not recognized by Ukraine or most other countries, but Russia exercised de facto control of the region. His successor, Dmitry Medvedev, continued this policy: as a part of Moscow’s ongoing efforts to quell separatism and Islamic militancy in the Caucasus, he created an eighth federal district there in 2010. 143,888,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). ), Sex ratio: At birth 1,06 male(s)/female; under 15 years 1,05 male(s)/female; 15-64 years and over 0,44 ,male(s)/female; total population 0,86 male(s)/female (2009 est. It consists of the Federation Council (an upper house comprising appointed representatives from each of Russia’s administrative divisions) and the State Duma (a 450-member popularly elected lower house). For over a decade, Russia has been engaged in its own war on terror against … The Siberia district unites the remainder of the West Siberia economic region and all of East Siberia. The Urals district consists of the remaining administrative divisions of the Ural economic region along with several from the West Siberia economic region. ), Life expectancy: total population 66,03 years; male 59,33 years; female 73,14 years (2009 est. View Images. The Russian landscape varies from desert to frozen coastline, tall mountains to giant marshes. In June 1990 the Congress of the Russian republic proclaimed that Russian laws took precedence over Soviet laws, and the following year Boris Yeltsin became the republic’s first democratically elected president. Which cookies and scripts are used and how they impact your visit is specified on the left. Once the preeminent republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.; commonly known as the Soviet Union), Russia became an independent country after the dissolution of … The government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. With a two-thirds majority (and approval by the Russian Constitutional Court), the legislature may remove the president from office for treason or other serious criminal offenses. Expatica uses technology such as cookies and scripts to personalize content and ads, provide social media features, and analyze our traffic. Until the late 1980s, however, the government was dominated at all levels by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, … The Apparatus of the Government of Russia is a governmental body which administrates the activities of the government was subject to a series of Soviet constitutions (1918, 1924, 1936, 1977), under which it nominally was a sovereign socialist state within (after 1936) a federal structure. The Central district unites the city of Moscow with all administrative divisions within the Central and Central Black Earth economic regions. Following these reforms in regional government, the new federal districts began to replace the 11 traditional economic regions, particularly for statistical purposes. Russian government types over history are incredibly diverse, as the country seems to have exhausted virtually all their options. Conflicts came to a head in September 1993 when President Yeltsin dissolved the Russian parliament (the Congress of People’s Deputies and the Supreme Soviet); some deputies and their allies revolted and were suppressed only through military intervention. For the first time, elections to these bodies presented voters with a choice of candidates, including noncommunists, though the Communist Party continued to dominate the system. For most of the 20th century it was the dominant republic of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which, along with the United States, was one of the world’s two superpowers. In comparison to the federal government, regional governments generally have inadequate tax revenue to support mandatory items in their budgets, which have barely been able to cover wages for teachers and police. The Russian population is decreasing by approximately 700 people a day, or more than 250,000 people annually, according to the Eurasia Daily Monitor. He was elected for a four-year term (eligible for a second term), however, the term length was extended in 2008 to six years, going into effect in the elections of 2012. An abortive coup in August 1991 by hard-liners opposed to Gorbachev’s reforms led to the collapse of most Soviet government organizations, the abolition of the Communist Party’s leading role in government, and the dissolution of the party itself. It is the second largest producer of natural gas. The structure of the new Russian government differed significantly from that of the former Soviet republic. The reign of Peter I (the Great; 1689–1725), The reign of Catherine II (the Great; 1762–96), Government administration under Catherine, Education and social change in the 18th century, The Civil War and War Communism (1918–21), The Gorbachev era: perestroika and glasnost, Ethnic relations and Russia’s “near-abroad”, Consolidation of power, Syria, and campaign against the West. In practice, however, the guidance served more as a directive, as the president was able to use the envoys to enforce presidential authority over the regional governments. There is no vice president; if the president dies in office or is not able to exercise his power for whatever reason, the premier is to serve as acting president until new elections are held, which must be within three months. The Federation Council represents the matters of the federal subjects of Russia, the political divisions of the country. ), Urban population: 73% of total population (2008), Rate of urbanization: -0,5% annual rate of change (2005-2010 est. \"The Soviet rule left its impression on the culture, creating a fundamental fear and mistrust of those outside the family, extended family and other close familial connections,\" she told Live Science. ), People living with HIV/AIDS: 940,000 (2007 est. Russia is a federation of republics, provinces, territories, and districts, all controlled by the government in Moscow. Have a cookie July 1918 - Tsar Nicolas II and the royal family are executed by the Bolsheviks, in Yekatrinburg, Russia. US officials suspect that Russian-linked hackers were behind the recent data breach of multiple federal agencies, including the Departments of Homeland Security, Agriculture and Commerce, but … The districts’ presidential envoys were given the power to implement federal law and to coordinate communication between the president and the regional governors. Age structure: 0-14 years 14,8% (male 10,644,833/female 10,095,011); 15-64 years 71,5% (male 48,004,040/female 52,142,313); 65 years and over (male 5,880,877/female 13,274,173) (2009 est. That said, Trump's friendly rhetoric helpful to Putin's interests. President of Russia Vladimir Putin The Council works to pass legislation by voting on policies and regulations that the State Duma has approved. From the late 1980s through 1991—the period of Mikhail Gorbachev’s perestroika (“restructuring”), glasnost (“openness”), and demokratizatsiya (“democratization”) reform policies—fundamental changes took place in the political system and government structures of the Soviet Union that altered both the nature of the Soviet federal state and the status and powers of the individual republics. Facts about Russia’s Government 5: the asymmetrical federalism. The constitution provides for welfare protection, access to social security, pensions, free health care, and affordable housing; it also guarantees local self-governance. The USSR collapsed in 1991, and after a series of political crises the current constitution was adopted and the government formed in 1993. Russia is divided into 11 time zones. It was characterized by a power struggle between the executive and legislative branches, primarily over issues of constitutional authority and the pace and direction of democratic and economic reform. The currency's value has since stabilized. ), Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3,8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census), Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.) It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law "On the Government of the Russian Federation". ), Median age: 38,4 years (male 35,2 years/female 41,6 years) (2009 est. Russia, the largest country in the world, occupies one-tenth of all the land on Earth. While most are not actively erupting, many are considered dangerous due to their eruptive history and proximity to population centers and air travel corridors. The world’s largest country by far, Russia has played a correspondingly large role in international affairs. Hackers who targeted the U.S. government appear to be part of a Russian intelligence campaign aimed at U.S. agencies and companies, including the cybersecurity firm FireEye, officials said. note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and non-believers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule, Literacy (age 15+ can read and write): total population 99,4% (male 99,7%/female 99,2%), School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total 14 years (male 13 years/female 14 years) (2006), Education expenditures: 3,8% of GDP (2005), Country name: conventional long form: Russian Federation; conventional short form: Russia; local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya; local short form: Rossiya. The 14 countries bordering Russia are: Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and North Korea. Nevertheless, national law takes precedence over regional and local laws, and the constitution enumerates many areas that either are administered jointly by the regions and the central government or are the exclusive preserve of the central government. Chief of state: President Dmitriy Anatolyevich Medvedev (since 7 May 2008). The Russian Federation is a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia originated from the state of Kiev on the 9th century and was ruled for almost 1000 years by an autocratic regime. Indeed, in the elections that were held, there was only a single slate of candidates, the great majority of whom were in effect chosen by the Communist Party. Decisions on laws require at least a 51% vote. Rossiya, republic (2015 est. ), Infant mortality rate: total 10,56 deaths/1,000 live births; male 12,08 deaths/1,000 births; female 8,94 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est. Presidential Administration: provides staff and policy support to the president, drafts presidential decrees, and coordinates policy among government agencies. A presidential veto of a bill can be overridden by the legislature with a two-thirds majority, or a bill may be altered to incorporate presidential reservations and pass with a majority vote. During the Soviet era the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (the R.S.F.S.R.) Photograph by Dmitryminin, Dreamstime The Volga district merges units of the Volga, Volga-Vyatka, and Ural economic regions. Over municipal property and policing, and Catholicism taxation and the licensing of businesses the USSR in... 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